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Implementation of the Middle East Resolution 1995 to establish the Middle East free zone of Nuclear Weapons is vital and lifeline to extension and success of the Non-Proliferation Treaty

GhonameHoward HallAbstract – English

The Non-proliferation treaty (NPT) is the cornerstone for disarmament, non-proliferation, and the peaceful uses regime. It has a tangible influential effect on nation’s foreign policy. The indefinite extension of the NPT is suspended on the implementation of the Middle East Resolution 1995 (ME Res 1995) for establishing nuclear weapon free zone in the Middle East (MENWFZ). However, the international community delays for the implementation of the ME Res 1995 due to the existence of Israel’s nuclear arsenals, which has the greatest long-term impact on world politics. It threatens not only the interests of the Arab nations, but also stability in the ME. Iran influences the international system by its persistence to acquire nuclear agents that may be turned into nuclear weapons.

This study highlights the main non-proliferation dilemmas we face and suggests an effective mechanism for reviving the spirit and the hope of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. It does this in the spirit of promoting a renaissance of the non-proliferation regime and helping to strengthen what we should now call the four pillars of the treaty: disarmament, non-proliferation, peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and implementation of the Middle East Resolution of 1995—which is an indispensable key to the treaty’s extension and success. The study addresses a number of dilemmas (that arise from the way various NPT participants pursue the goals represented in the four pillars undergirding the treaty. The study highlights the main problems, which we believe may bring about—sooner or later—dissolution of the treaty. That treaty may then come to be replaced with another, more balanced, comprehensive, and fair treaty.

In addition, we discuss in the study significant dilemmas questions to identify some of the keys that may be potential for further improvement for the implementation of the Resolution, maintaining the existence of the NPT regime and sustaining the international and regional peace and security.

The study addresses the effectiveness of United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Resolutions, and offers recommendations and conclusion for all those who are concerned about the need for assuring nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction non-proliferation and at the same time limiting the spread of nuclear weapons and maintaining the endorsing the regional and international peace, security and stability.

The two authors are from the Middle East (Egypt) – the region in which many countries contemplating starting or growing nuclear power programs, and the other from the United States (Knoxville) that currently supply nuclear material and technology. They pointing out the important role of the international organizations and treaties that should support the safe, secure functioning of the international nuclear fuel cycle, transferring the nuclear technology, and establishing free nuclear weapons free zones, most prominently the UN and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the NPT

Accessing the goal of zero weapons-free world requires tremendous efforts and enough courage to determine the missing and the necessary steps in non-proliferation and disarmament regimes. In this study, we provide a detailed analysis of the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Middle East Resolution 1995 that linked together as and the challenges facing its implementation. The examination is based on the NPT Preparatory and Review Conferences Final Documents and outcomes. We start with the importance of the ME Resolution 1995 through the two major significant events (Station) that led to the adoption of this Resolution and the calling for implementing it. Then examine the gap between the Resolution 1995 implementations requirements and the membership continuity on the NPT by highlighting different assumptions.

The study identifies how the Middle East Resolution 1995 for establishing Middle East nuclear weapon free zone assists the region and the international stability and security, addressing the innovative options to bridge the divide between nuclear-weapon states (NWS) and non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS) obligations and their rights regarding the nuclear technology and the development of civilian nuclear power.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the institution or Center or agencies that provided support for the study.

Abstract – Arabic

ملخص تنفيذى

تنفيذ قرار الشرق الاوسط 1995 لاخلاء الشرق الاوسط من الاسلحة النووية طوق نجاة اساسى لبقاء نظام عدم انتشار الأسلحة النووية

يحتفل العالم هذا العام ٢٠١٥ بالعيد الـ 45 لمعاهدة عدم إنتشار الاسلحة النووية ( NPT ) والتي باتت في مرحلة الاحتضار نظرا للاخفاقات المتتالية في ركائزها الاربعة وهي:

نزع السلاح النووي : فمازالت الدول النووية تمتلك ترسانتها النووية بل وتطور أجيالا جديدة منها . وكذا رفض كل من الولايات المتحدة والصين التصديق علي معاهدة الحظر الشامل للتجارب النووية.

عدم الانتشار النووي : تزايدت عدد الدول التي أعلنت عن إمتلاكها للسلاح النووي مثل كوريا الشمالية والهند وباكستان والتي لم تعلن بعد مثل إسرائيل والتي تحاول جاهدة مثل إيران.

الاستخدامات السلمية للطاقة النووية: فهناك فرض قيود صارمة من الدول النووية ومجموعة الموردين النوويين على الدول غير النووية لحجب حق إمتلاك المعرفة وتكنولوجيا الاستخدامات السلمية للطاقة النووية وخاصة دورة الوقود النووي للدول غير النووية.

قرار 1995 لاخلاء الشرق الاوسط من الاسلحة النووية : الذي طال إنتظار تنفيذه أكثر من 25 عاما حتي الان، وهو بمثابة رومانة الميزان لبقاء NPT من عدمه ، والذي يعد تنفيذه منظومة أمنية متكاملة بل وحجر أساس لبناء الثقة بين كافة دول المنطقة بما فيهم إسرائيل .

ففي ظل الصحوة العربية التي تقودها مصر وتؤيدها الدول العربية ودول عدم الانحياز تقدمت مصر بقرار بعنوان ” مخاطر الأنتشار النووي الاسرئيلي ” والذي إعتمدته الامم المتحدة ” في 2 ديسمبر 2014 ب161 صوتا مقابل 5 أصوات يطالب إسرائيل بالتخلى عن ترسانتها النووية وإخضاع جميع منشآتها النووية لنظام الضمانات الشاملة للوكالة الدولية للطاقة الذرية، والانضمام إلي معاهدة الـ NPT دون إبطاء.

ويتضمن القرار فقرات عاملة منها: ان قرار 1995 ساري المفعول إلى أن يتم تنفيذه. ويعكس هذا القراررسالة قوية للمجتمع الدولي ان الدول العربية وعلي رأسها مصر ليس لها خيار أمام شعوبها إلا أن ترفض الوضع الحالي، وكذا سياسة الامر الواقع التي تنتهجها إسرائيل.

ولقد عبرت مصر عن إستيائها للوضع الحالي بإنسحابها من مؤتمر مراجعة معاهدة NPT في جينيف 2013 لاخفاق الدول الراعية والامم المتحدة والمجتمع الدولي وميسر مؤتمر هلسنكي 2012 وفشل الجميع في عقد المؤتمر. وحرصا من مصر علي تحقيق الامن والسلم الاقليمي والدولي لمنطقة الشرق الاوسط فقد تقدمت برؤية واضحة في مؤتمر إستعراض المعاهدة 2015 بنيويورك لكيفية تنفيذ قرار إخلاء الشرق الاوسط من الاسلحة النووية مع إعطاء مهلة لبدء التنفيذ ب180 يوما ، وان الترسانة النووية التي تمتلكها إسرائيل في مفاعلاتها المتقادمة والتي تجاوزت فترة تشغليها أكثر من 60 عاما مما قد يتسبب في تهديد بل إبادة المنطقة بأسرها.

لقد بات واضحا أن قرار 1995 بشأن إخلاء الشرق الاوسط من الاسلحة النووية ومعاهدة NPT مصيرهما واحد “كالتوأم المتلاصق” وهما وجهان لعملة واحدة. والامر لا يغال فيه فطبقا لاتفاقية فيينا لقانون المعاهدات في مايو 1969 ، وكذا ميثاق الامم المتحدة بحق الدولة فى الأنسحاب من المعاهدة لكون ذلك ليس حقاّ فقط بل ترخيص للدولة تستخدمه طالما توافرت شروط استخدامه وهى : إذا كان لديها ذريعة أو مبرر كتعديل المعاهدة صراحة أو ضمنا مما يزيد من أعباء الدول الاعضاء أو ينتقص من حقوقهم المنصوص عليها أو وجود حالة باتت تهدد أمنها القومى.

Read the full version in English (PDF)

Read the full version in Arabic (PDF)


NNSA’s Graduate Fellowship Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

NNSA_LogoThe National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Graduate Fellowship Program provides unique hands-on experience to prepare exceptional graduate students to become next-generation leaders in global nuclear security. During the 12-month, full-time, salary-plus-benefits term, Fellows work in policy or technical areas alongside NNSA experts in Washington, D.C. or other NNSA site locations.

Fellows receive specialized training and opportunities for career development and professional networking, while also directly supporting NNSA’s global nuclear security mission in placements that align with their backgrounds and interests.  Fellows will interact with leading researchers in the field while helping shape the vision for future technologies related to detection of nuclear materials and the security of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile.

Applicants must be U.S. citizens eligible for a high-level security clearance, and are accepted to, enrolled in, or will be graduating from a master’s or Ph.D. program during the year of application. Desirable academic specializations for the policy track include international relations, security or nonproliferation studies, political science, public administration, economics and related fields.  For the technical track, desirable academic specializations include nuclear physics/ engineering, chemical engineering, radiation health physics, radiochemistry, chemical sciences, applied physics, and related fields. Some positions may also benefit from backgrounds in safety and health, infrastructure and operations management, or finance/accounting.   A combined policy and technical background is highly desirable, and a foreign language is a plus.

Applications typically are accepted beginning in early August through October 21st. Fellowship terms begin the following summer.

Visit http://ngfp.pnnl.gov to learn more and apply.


S&T Policy Fellowship Opportunities for Faculty

aaas_logo-prv_580x390AAAS S&T Policy Fellowship Opportunities for Faculty engage doctoral level scientists and engineers in national and international issues in the federal policy realm, while affording a career enhancing opportunity to develop valuable skills, resources, and networks in the science policy arena.

The policy fellowships are a public service and professional development opportunity for faculty to apply their knowledge and training to the policy development and implementation process.

Learn how you can enhance policy and transform your career. Join AAAS September 4 at 2 p.m. EDT for a one-hour video based chat session on the AAAS Science & Technology (S&T) Policy Fellowship program and application process for the 2015-16 fellowship year. Have your questions answered by faculty colleagues and alumni fellows, and chat with program staff.

September 4 at 2pm EDT: S&T Policy Fellowship Opportunities for Faculty

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Will Ukraine go nuclear? INS featured on “Background Briefings” discussing the crisis

deanandmeNatalie Manayeva, a research assistant at the University of Tennessee’s Institute for Nuclear Security and Dean Rice, former congressional policy and legislative aid on energy and national defense, were interviewed by Ian Masters for his radio show “Background Briefings” on August 4.

They discussed the CNN op ed “Is Ukraine about to go nuclear again?” that they wrote with Dr. Howard Hall, Director of the INS, and talked about the most recent and threatening developments in Russian/Ukrainian conflict, including growing possibility of Ukraine obtaining nuclear weapons and other countries following that example.

Background Briefings with Ian Masters is a radio program featuring international and national news, expert guests, policy makers, offering analysis and insight on national security, foreign and domestic policy. The show airs on KPFK FM-90.7 – Los Angeles and is broadcasted to over 160 radio station across the U.S.

Click HERE to listen to the  interview.


Currently advertised IAEA positions

IAEA lo goCurrently advertised vacancies in the IAEA Department of Safeguards:

2014/076:   Director (D-1)               

Application Deadline:    June 20, 2014

Salary:  $161,426

Guidance:  U.S. citizens Should NOT apply.

 

2014/420:   Systems Analyst/Programmer (P-3)

Office of Information and Communication Systems                       

Application Deadline:    June 20, 2014

Salary:  $94,918

Guidance:  U.S. citizens are encouraged to apply.

 

The U.S. Support Program is currently recruiting for a junior professional officer position:

11/TAU-002 – JPO – Unattended Monitoring Systems (UMS Engineer) – Josh Tackentien

 

For more information please visit: http://recruitment.iaea.org/phf/p_vacancies.asp.


U.S. Department of State 2015 Spring Student Internship Program

us_department_logoThe U.S. Department of State is now accepting applications for the U.S. Department of State 2015 Spring Student Internship Program (unpaid).

Click here (https://www.usajobs.gov/GetJob/ViewDetails/369816600) to go directly to USAJobs to start the Gateway to State online application. Please note that the deadline to submit completed applications is July 1, 2014.

This program offers U.S. citizen undergraduate and graduate students the opportunity to participate in 10-week, unpaid internships that provide intensive educational and professional experience within the environment of America’s principle foreign affairs agency.

The unpaid internships are available at many of the over 270 U.S. embassies, consulates and missions to international organizations around the world, as well as at the Department of State in Washington, D.C. and other locations throughout the U.S. Participants gain first-hand, hands-on experience, and learn the realities of working in – and with – Foreign and Civil Service professionals who are at the forefront of America’s diplomatic efforts.

As an unpaid intern, you may have the opportunity to:

  • Participate in meetings with senior level U.S. government or foreign government officials;
  • Draft, edit, or contribute to cables, reports, communications, talking points, or other materials used by policy makers in furthering U.S. foreign policy objectives;
  • Help organize and support events, including international and/or multi-lateral meetings and conferences on critical global issues;
  • Contribute to the management and administration of the Department of State and America’s foreign policy; and
  • Engage directly with U.S. or foreign audiences to promote U.S. foreign policy and improve understanding of U.S. culture and society.

So consider spending your Spring 2015 with the U.S. Department of State, witnessing and participating in the formulation and implementation of U.S. foreign policy, working closely with the U.S. diplomats and civil servants who carry out America’s foreign policy initiatives. You’ll not only have an experience of a lifetime, you may even earn educational credit.*

Please visit http://careers.state.gov/intern/which-program-is-right-for-you for more information about the Spring 2015 Student Internship Program (unpaid), and to start the online application process via USAJobs. Please note that the deadline to submit completed applications is July 1, 2014.

 


ORAU Opportunity: Australia’s Endeavour Scholarships and Fellowships

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ORAU has partnered with the Australian Government to seek U.S. and Canadian applicants for Australia’s Endeavour Scholarships and Fellowships, an internationally competitive, merit-based scholarship program that provides funding for study, research, or professional development opportunities between Australia and the world.

The following opportunities are available:

  • Endeavour Postgraduate Scholarship provides up to AU$272,500 for eligible non-Australians including Americans and Canadians to undertake a postgraduate qualification at a Masters or PhD level either by coursework or research in any field in Australia for up to four years.
  • Endeavour Research Fellowships provides up to AU$24,500 for American and Canadian postgraduate research students and postdoctoral researchers to undertake 4-6 months of research in Australia.
  • Endeavour Executive Fellowship provides up to AU$18,500 for professional development opportunities (1-4 months) for high achievers in business, industry, education or government from eligible participating countries.

Qualifications:

Program benefits include travel and establishment allowances that can be used towards expenses such as rental bonds, text books, study materials, or computer/software expenses. A monthly stipend is also provided to cover living expenses while residing in the host country

Application Process: 2014.

To be eligible, applicants must be 18 years of age and have completed at minimum a bachelor’s degree. For more information on eligibility requirements or to apply, visit http://orau.org/endeavourscholarships  or   endeavor@education.gov.au .


100 Leaders Write to President Obama on Non-Proliferation Spending Reductions

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Washington DC – May 1, 2014– Press Release – In an effort to express frustration with three years of successive cuts to critical preventing terrorists from gaining access to dangerous nuclear materials, 100 experts on national security and nuclear non-proliferation issues have written to President Obama decrying twenty-five percent or greater budget cuts to key nuclear non-proliferation programs in the President’s Fiscal Year 2015 budget request.

Signers include former Senator Byron Dorgan (ND); Lt. Generals John Castellaw (USMC ret.), Robert Gard (USA ret.) and Arlen D. Jameson (USAF ret.); and Ambassadors Kenneth C. Brill, Ralph Earle II, Thomas Graham Jr., Peter Galbraith and Nancy Soderberg. The letter was also signed by two former Members of Congress, other retired generals, sitting State Senators and Representatives and heads of various nongovernmental organizations.

The full text of the letter and all signers can be found here.

In reference to the cuts former Senator Dorgan said: “Terrorist groups are working overtime to acquire nuclear weapons with which to terrorize the world. Our country needs to show leadership in preventing terrorists from acquiring nuclear weapons. Cutting federal spending now on the nuclear non-proliferation programs would be a very dangerous mistake.”

The letter originated with the Council for a Livable and the Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation. Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation’s Director of Non-Proliferation Programs, Kingston Reif said: “Reducing funding for these programs increases the amount of time it will take to secure or eliminate dangerous materials that could be used by terrorists in an improvised nuclear explosive device or a dirty bomb.”

Council for a Livable World is a non-partisan advocacy organization dedicated to increasing national security, particularly through reducing of the danger of nuclear weapons proliferation. The Council advocates for a strong and sensible national security policy and helps elect congressional candidates supporting those ideals.


INS on CNN: Is Ukraine about to go nuclear again?

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Today, CNN published an op-ed by INS Director Dr. Howard Hall, Natalie Manayeva, and Dean Rice discussing the actions of Russia in Ukraine and their consequences on the future of the NPT and global nuclear security.

(CNN) — As tensions escalate on the eastern border of Ukraine, President Barack Obama has called on Russian President Vladimir Putin and his government “to cease all efforts to undermine and destabilize” the sovereign nation after the movement of Russian troops into Ukraine and its annexing of Crimea.

Meanwhile, our European allies continue round-the-clock conversations as the political leadership in Kiev is seemingly helpless to stave off the next potential military land grab.

This is the backdrop to a legislative endeavor in Kiev that, although widely unreported in the West, will fundamentally reshape the world community’s dialogue on the Ukrainian crisis…

Read full article here.

 

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